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The grapheme n

The grapheme n


The grapheme n

A grapheme is a letter or group of letters that corresponds to a single phoneme (the smallest unit of sound).

Download our Graphemes chart below.

Print out the chart or display it on a screen. The graphemes have been grouped by sound. Focus on one grapheme at a time. Sound out each example word, highlighting how different graphemes can make the same sound.

Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary sound or many of the most frequent sounds for each consonant.
Associate the long and short sounds with the common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels.
Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs.


The grapheme nas in net as in net



Deep Dive

Read our report on the Science of Reading. Research-based reading instruction must incorporate the 5 pillars of reading: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. This report provides an easy to understand overview of each of these pillars and explains the important connection between how the brain learns to read (the Neuroscience of Reading) and how we teach children to read (The Science of Reading Instruction). It also explains why helping children build connections between letters and sounds, through phonics and phonemic awareness, is so crucial for the developing reading mind. This report is perfect for sharing with colleagues and friends!